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引領產業發展 保護消費權益

SAFETY & QUALITY

IEC

  • 發布日期:2014/10/31
  • 發布單位:第一組第一科
  • 資料點閱次數:46358

一、成立背景
國際電工委員會(International Electrotechnical Commission,簡稱IEC)於1906年在英國倫敦正式成立,已經有超過百年歷史,是世界上最早的國際性電工標準化機構,初期總部位於倫敦,在1948年時,才將總部遷至目前的日內瓦。1947年國際標準組織(ISO)成立後,IEC便與ISO合作,根據1976年ISO與IEC的協議,將電工、電子領域之國際標準化工作,規劃由IEC負責,其他領域的國際標準化工作,則由ISO負責,二者皆保持行政與財務上的獨立性。IEC是目前在電子、電機相關領域之國際標準發展,居領導地位的國際性標準發展組織,其領域範圍包含電子工程、電磁、電聲、多媒體、電訊、能源製造與傳送、及相關的一般性原則。
IEC的組織目標分述如下:
 1. 有效率地符合全球性市場之需求。
 2. 確保其標準與符合性評鑑制度在全球之廣泛使用。
 3. 評估與改進其標準所涵蓋的產品和服務之品質。
 4. 創造複雜系統可相互操作的環境。
 5. 提高產業操作過程之效率。
 6. 對提升人類健康與安全有貢獻。
 7. 對環境保護有貢獻。

二、 組織架構

IEC的最高權力單位是委員會(Council),是由成員國的國家委員會組成,每個國家僅能有一個機構代表其參與會員,目前有67個國家委員會代表。委員會會議一年一次,稱為IEC年會,輪流在各個成員國召開。 IEC另外還有管理、執行、顧問單位、及官員等單位。
IEC主要官員有主席、副主席、財務長、秘書長等。
有關IEC各單位之詳細功能與任務,可參考IEC網站,網址:http://www.iec.ch/about/?ref=menu

三、 組織活動
 (一) 標準發展
IEC的標準發展工作,主要由技術委員會(TC)、次技術委員會(SC)進行,截至2006年11月底止,IEC有169個TC與SC,以及多達505個WG,並擁有4,941項國際標準、160項技術規格(technical specifications)、296項技術報告(technical reports)、及57項IEC-PAS。各TC、SC名稱與工作內容描述,整理如下表所示:

Committee
Description
TC 1 Terminology
TC 2 Rotating machinery
TC 3 Information structures, documentation and graphical symbols
SC 3C Graphical symbols for use on equipment
SC 3D Data sets for libraries
TC 4 Hydraulic turbines
TC 5 Steam Turbines (IN STAND BY)
TC 7 Overhead electrical conductors
TC 8 Systems aspects for electrical energy supply
TC 9 Electrical equipment and systems for railways
TC 10 Fluids for electrotechnical applications
TC 11 Overhead lines
TC 13 Electrical energy measurement, tariff- and load control
TC 14 Power transformers
TC 15 Solid electrical insulating materials
TC 16 Basic and safety principles for man-machine interface, marking and identification
TC 17 Switchgear and controlgear
SC 17A High-voltage switchgear and controlgear
SC 17B Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear
SC 17C High-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies
SC 17D Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies
TC 18 Electrical installations of ships and of mobile and fixed offshore units
SC 18A Cables and cable installations
TC 20 Electric cables
TC 21 Secondary cells and batteries
SC 21A Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes
TC 22 Power electronic systems and equipment
SC 22E Stabilized power supplies
SC 22F Power electronics for electrical transmission and distribution systems
SC 22G Adjustable speed electric drive systems incorporating semiconductor power converters
SC 22H Uninterruptible power systems (UPS)
TC 23 Electrical accessories
SC 23A Cable management systems
SC 23B Plugs, socket-outlets and switches
SC 23C World-wide plug and socket-outlet systems
SC 23E Circuit-breakers and similar equipment for household use
SC 23F Connecting devices
SC 23G Appliance couplers
SC 23H Industrial, plugs and socket-outlets
SC 23J Switches for appliances
TC 25 Quantities and units, and their letter symbols
TC 26 Electric welding
TC 27 Industrial electroheating equipment
TC 28 Insulation co-ordination
TC 29 Electroacoustics
TC 31 Equipment for explosive atmospheres
SC 31G Intrinsically-safe apparatus
SC 31H Apparatus for use in the presence of combustible dust
SC 31J Classification of hazardous areas and installation requirements
TC 32 Fuses
SC 32A High-voltage fuses
SC 32B Low-voltage fuses
SC 32C Miniature fuses
TC 33 Power capacitors
TC 34 Lamps and related equipment
SC 34A Lamps
SC 34B Lamp caps and holders
SC 34C Auxiliaries for lamps
SC 34D Luminaires
TC 35 Primary cells and batteries
TC 36 Insulators
SC 36A Insulated bushings
SC 36B Insulators for overhead lines
SC 36C Insulators for substations
TC 37 Surge arresters
SC 37A Low-voltage surge protective devices
SC 37B Specific components for surge arresters and surge protective devices
TC 38 Instrument transformers
TC 39 Electronic tubes
TC 40 Capacitors and resistors for electronic equipment
TC 42 High-voltage testing techniques
TC 44 Safety of machinery - Electrotechnical aspects
TC 45 Nuclear instrumentation
SC 45A Instrumentation and control of nuclear facilities
SC 45B Radiation protection instrumentation
TC 46 Cables, wires, waveguides, R.F. connectors, R.F. and microwave passive components and accessories
SC 46A Coaxial cables
SC 46C Wires and symmetric cables
SC 46F RF and microwave passive components
TC 47 Semiconductor devices
SC 47A Integrated circuits
SC 47D Mechanical standardization for semiconductor devices
SC 47E Discrete semiconductor devices
TC 48 Electromechanical components and mechanical structures for electronic equipment
SC 48B Connectors
SC 48D Mechanical structures for electronic equipment
TC 49 Piezoelectric and dielectric devices for frequency control and selection
TC 51 Magnetic components and ferrite materials
TC 55 Winding wires
TC 56 Dependability
TC 57 Power systems management and associated information exchange
TC 59 Performance of household and similar electrical appliances
SC 59A Electric dishwashers
SC 59C Heating appliances
SC 59D Home laundry appliances
SC 59F Floor treatment appliances
SC 59K Ovens and microwave ovens, cooking ranges and similar appliances
SC 59L Small household appliances
TC 61 Safety of household and similar electrical appliances
SC 61B Safety of microwave ovens
SC 61C Household appliances for refrigeration
SC 61D Appliances for air-conditioning for household and similar purposes
SC 61E Safety of electrical commercial catering equipment
SC 61F Safety of hand-held motor-operated electric tools
SC 61H Safety of electrically-operated farm appliances
SC 61J Electrical motor-operated cleaning appliances for industrial use
TC 62 Electrical equipment in medical practice
SC 62A Common aspects of electrical equipment used in medical practice
SC 62B Diagnostic imaging equipment
SC 62C Equipment for radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and radiation dosimetry
SC 62D Electromedical equipment
TC 64 Electrical installations and protection against electric shock
TC 65 Industrial-process measurement and control
SC 65A System aspects
SC 65B Devices & process analysis
SC 65C Digital communications
SC 65E System: engineering and management
TC 66 Safety of measuring, control and laboratory equipment
TC 68 Magnetic alloys and steels
TC 69 Electric road vehicles and electric industrial trucks
TC 70 Degrees of protection provided by enclosures
TC 72 Automatic controls for household use
TC 73 Short-circuit currents
TC 76 Optical radiation safety and laser equipment
TC 77 Electromagnetic compatibility
SC 77A Low frequency phenomena
SC 77B High frequency phenomena
SC 77C High power transient phenomena
TC 78 Live working
TC 79 Alarm systems (in stand by)
TC 80 Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems
TC 81 Lightning protection
TC 82 Solar photovoltaic energy systems
TC 85 Measuring equipment for electrical and electromagnetic quantities
TC 86 Fibre optics
SC 86A Fibres and cables
SC 86B Fibre optic interconnecting devices and passive components
SC 86C Fibre optic systems and active devices
TC 87 Ultrasonics
TC 88 Wind turbines
TC 89 Fire hazard testing
TC 90 Superconductivity
TC 91 Electronics assembly technology
TC 93 Design automation
TC 94 All-or-nothing electrical relays
TC 95 Measuring relays and protection equipment
TC 96 Small power transformers, reactors, power supply units and similar products
TC 97 Electrical installations for lighting and beaconing of aerodromes
TC 99 System engineering and erection of electrical power installations in systems with nominal voltages above 1kv a.c. and 1.5kV d.c., particularly concerning safety aspects
TC 100 Audio, video and multimedia systems and equipment
TC 101 Electrostatics
TC 103 Transmitting equipment for radio communication
TC 104 Environmental conditions, classification and methods of test
TC 105 Fuel cell technologies
TC 106 Methods for the assessment of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with human exposure
TC 107 Process management for avionics
TC 108 Safety of electronic equipment within the field of audio/video, information technology and communication technology
TC 109 Insulation co-ordination for low-voltage equipment
TC 110 Flat panel display devices
TC 111 Environmental standardization for electrical and electronic products and systems
TC 112 Evaluation and qualification of electrical insulating materials and systems
TC 113 Nanotechnology standardization for electrical and electronics products and systems
CISPR International special committee on radio interference
CISPR/SC A Radio-inteference measurements and statistical methods
CISPR/SC B Interference relating to industrial, scientific and medical radio-frequency apparatus, to other (heavy) industrial equipment, to overhead power lines, to high voltage equipment and to electric traction
CISPR/SC D Electromagnetic disturbances related to electric/electronic equipment on vehicles and internal combustion engine powered devices
CISPR/SC F Interference relating to household appliances tools, lighting equipment and similar apparatus
CISPR/SC H Limits for the protection of radio services
CISPR/SC I Electromagnetic compatibility of information technology equipment, multimedia equipment and receivers
CISPR/SC S Steering Committee of CISPR
ISO/IEC
JTC 1
ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee for information technology
ISO/IEC
JTC 1/SC 2
Coded character sets
ISO/IEC
JTC 1/SC 6
Telecommunications and information exchange between systems
ISO/IEC
JTC 1/SC 7
Software engineering
ISO/IEC
JTC 1/SC 11
Flexible magnetic media for digital data interchange
ISO/IEC
JTC 1/SC 17
Identification cards and related devices
ISO/IEC
JTC 1/SC 22
Programming languages, their environments and system software interfaces
ISO/IEC
JTC 1/SC 23
Optical disk cartridges for information interchange
ISO/IEC
JTC 1/SC 24
Computer graphics and image processing
ISO/IEC
JTC 1/SC 25
Interconnection of information technology equipment
ISO/IEC
JTC 1/SC 27
IT security techniques
ISO/IEC
JTC 1/SC 28
Office equipment
ISO/IEC
JTC 1/SC 29
Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information
ISO/IEC
JTC 1/SC 31
Automatic data capture
ISO/IEC
JTC 1/SC 32
Data management services
ISO/IEC
JTC 1/SC 34
Document description and processing languages
ISO/IEC
JTC 1/SC 35
User interfaces
ISO/IEC
JTC 1/SC 36
Information Technology for Learning, Educatio

資料來源:IEC網站

 (二) 標準發展會議
  IEC將各TC、SC預定召開的會議,皆整理於網站,對於想要掌握特定標準發展進度,可至IEC網站查詢,網址:http://www.iec.ch/index.htm。但所列之議程,僅供有帳號及密碼的會員下載。

 (三) IEC基本計畫2006(Masterplan 2006)
   「IEC基本計畫2006」是於IEC百週年紀念時所發佈,作為IEC組織發展之策略計畫。其內容架構共可分為下列6個部分:
   1. 願景與任務
   2. 市場適切性
   3. 以IEC標準化為戰略性工具
   4. 全球性推廣
   5. 革新與附加價值
   6. 持續與改進
完整的「IEC基本計畫2006」內文可於IEC網站下載,網址:http://www.iec.ch/news/?ref=menu

四、 符合性評鑑
IEC的多邊符合性評鑑制度,不論在概念或執行皆是全球性層面的。其目的在降低不同國家的驗證基準所造成的貿易障礙,同時削減多重的試驗所造成的時程延遲與成本。IEC有三項多邊符合性評鑑系統,分述如下:
1。IECEE系統(Worldwide System for Conformity Testing and Certification of Electrical Equipment)-電氣、電子設備的驗證系統,底下又包含CB Scheme和CB-FCS。
CB Scheme是基於相互承認協議的原則而發展,即製造商若獲得國家驗證單位(NCB)的CB驗證許可(CB test certificates),便可依此向其他會員國家申請驗證標章,更多有關CB Scheme的資訊,可參閱IECEE CB Scheme網站,網址:http://www.iecee.org/cbscheme/default.htm
CB-FCS的“FCS”代表“Full Certification Scheme”。有關CB-FCS的詳細資訊,可參閱IECEE CB-FCS網站,網址:http://www.iecee.org/cb_fcs/default.htm
2。IECQ系統-電子零組件的品質驗證系統。範圍包含:電子零組件及相關材料與製程、製造商與通路商、專業承包商、及實驗室單位。主要依據ISO 9001或ISO/IEC 17025之規範。更多關於IECQ的資訊可參考IECQ網站,網址:http://www.iecq.org/
3。IECEx系統-電氣設備於易爆炸環境的驗證系統。IECEx驗證主要是讓電氣設備的製造商,將可能使用於易爆炸環境的電氣設備,通過IECEx驗證之後,能銷售至全球。更多關於IECQ的資訊可參考IECQ網站,網址:http://www.iecex.com/

五、 新聞訊息
有關IEC國際標準化相關訊息與最新發展,如技術委員會(TC)之最新發展、IEC & ISO論壇活動、年度大會等,可由IEC網站首頁之最新消息(Latest News)欄瀏覽,網址為:http://www.iec.ch/index.htm

六、 聯絡方式
電話:+41-22-919-0211
E-mail: inmail@iec.ch
地址:P.O.Box 131, 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland

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